Bank audit Appropriation of Recovery in NPAs

In case of any recovery in the NPA, the application of recovery towards interest/principal should be based on the agreement with the borrower. In the absence of a clear agreement, banks should adopt an accounting principle and exercise the right of appropriation of recoveries in a uniform and consistent manner. Thus, as per the consistent policy of the bank, recovery may be appropriated towards interest or principal.

  1. Asset Classification

Having identified an account as NPA, it is further required to be classified into –

  1. Sub-standard Assets
  2. Doubtful Assets
  3. Loss Assets Sub-standard Assets:

An account which is classified as NPA for the first time, is categorised as sub-standard for a period of less than or equal to twelve months from the date of advance becoming NPA. However in following

If any advance, including bills purchased and
discounted, becomes NPA as at the close of any
year, entire interest accrued and credited to income
account in the past periods, should be reversed or
provided for if the same is not realised during the
year under audit.

circumstances, the NPA should be straightaway classified as doubtful/loss asset-

  • Where there are potential threats for recovery on account of erosion in the value of security or non-availability of security and existence of other factors such as frauds committed by borrowers
  • When erosion in the realisable value of the security is more than 50% of the value assessed by the bank or accepted by the RBI at the time of last inspection, NPAs should be straightaway classified under doubtful category.
  • If the realisable value of the security, as assessed by the bank/approved valuers/RBI is less than 10% of the outstanding in the borrowal accounts, the NPA should be straightaway classified as loss asset.

Doubtful Assets:

An account is classified as doubtful if it has remained in the sub-standard category for a period of 12 months.

Loss Assets:

Such an asset is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted although there may be some salvage or recovery value (less than 10% of balance outstanding).

  1. Prudential Guidelines on Restructuring of Advances by Banks

There is a different set of guidelines for classification of advances under restructuring in Part-B of the Master Circular of Reserve Bank of India

  • Guidelines are extended to following four category of advances:
  • Advances to industrial units
  • Industrial units under the Corporate Debt Restructuring (CDR) mechanism
  • Advances extended to Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)
  • Restructuring of all other advances.
    • Eligibility Criteria:

Banks may restructure the accounts classified under ‘standard’, ‘sub-standard’ and ‘doubtful’ categories.

Bank Audit Income Recognition Reversal of Income


An account which is generally irregular, where a solitary or a tew credits are recorded before the balance sheet date, should be carefully checked.

lead bank for the transfer of their share of recovery, they may be able to make proper classification in their books.

  • Advances against Term Deposits, NSCs and KVP/IVP,

Advances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs and life policies need not be treated as NPAs. Advances against gold ornaments, government securities and all other securities are not covered by this exemption.

  • Government guaranteed advances

The credit facilities backed by guarantee of the Central Government though overdue may be treated as NPA only when the government repudiates its guarantee when invoked.

  • Up gradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs

If arrears of interest and principal are paid by the borrower in the case of loan accounts classified as NPAs, the account should no longer be treated as non-performing and may be classified as ‘standard!

  • Accounts regularised near about the balance sheet date

An account which is generally irregular, where a solitary or a few credits are recorded before the balance sheet date, should be carefully checked. Where the account indicates inherent weakness on the basis of the data available, the account should be deemed as a NPA. In other genuine cases, the auditors must obtain satisfactory evidence about the manner of regularisation of the account to eliminate doubts on their performing status.

  • Income Recognition
  1. As per Accounting Standard 9 on Revenue Recognition and as per the Master Circular of the RBI, income should be recognised when there is a reasonable certainty about its realisability. In respect of NPA, there is no reasonable certainty about realisability of interest, therefore it is booked as income only when it is actually realised. If bank follows policy of charging interest in NPA account then same should not be taken to income but to unrealised interest or interest suspense account.

However, interest on advances against term deposits, NSCs, IVPs. KYPs and Life policies may be taken to inc me account on the due date, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts. For example: A borrower has taken loan of ^ 1 lakh against term deposit of ? 1.25 lakh. Balance in the account as on 31st March, 2015 is ? 1.10 lakh. Even though account is over drawn, income would be recognised since value of deposit is more than the balance outstanding.

  1. Income on standard advances is recognised on accrual basis except in case of income on Central Government guaranteed advances, which would ha e otherwise become NPA, income is recognised on realisation.
  • In the case ol accounts where the pre restructuring facilities were classified as sub­standard’ and ci. ubtful interest income on the additional finance sh< >uld be recognised only on cash basis.
  1. In project loans, am funding of interest in respect of NPA’ ifgnised as income, should be fully providec for.
  2. If the amount of interest dues is converted into equity or am ther instrument, and income is recognised in consequence, full provision should be made for the amount of income so recognised However, if the conversion of interest is inn equitx which is quoted, interest income can be recognised at market value of equity, as on the date of conversion, not exceeding the am unt of interest converted to equity.
  3. The income in respect of unrealised interest which is con .x rted into debentures or any other fixed maturin instrument should be recognised only on redempti n of such instrument.
  • Fees and commissi ms earned by the banks as a result of tiations or re-scheduling of outstanding debts should be recognised on an accrual basis over the period of time covered by the re-neg d c r re-scheduled extension of credit.
  • Reversal of Income
  1. If any advance, .nduding bills purchased and discounted bee mes NPA as at the close of any year, entire interest accrued and credited to income account in the past periods, should be reversed or provided for if the same is not realised during the year under audit. This will apply to government guaranteed accounts also.
  1. In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed or provided for with respect to past periods, if uncollected.
  • The ‘finance charge’ component of finance income [as defined in ‘AS 19-Leases’ issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)] on the leased asset which has accrued and was credited to income account before the asset became non-performing, and remaining unrealised, should be reversed or provided for in the current accounting period.